Volume 1, Issue 4, November 2016, Page: 162-170
Surveying Illegal Access to Genetic Resources: A Case Study in Borena Zone, Southern, Ethiopia
Edeget Merawi, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Genetic Resources Access and Benefit Sharing Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ashenafi Ayenew, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Genetic Resources Access and Benefit Sharing Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fikremariam Ghion, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Genetic Resources Access and Benefit Sharing Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Received: Aug. 3, 2016;       Accepted: Aug. 23, 2016;       Published: Sep. 21, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20160104.13      View  2684      Downloads  109
Abstract
One of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) target to realize the mission of reducing pressures on biodiversity is “reduction of unsustainable utilization of biodiversity and ecosystem services”. Thus ultimately tackles and controls illicit movement of genetic resources of the country. Therefore, the objective of this study is to survey the current status, routes, impact, means, involved actors and management of illicit access to genetic resources particularly in Oromiya Regional State, Borena Zone. Data were collected from a total of 120 informants selected purposively from Moyalle District, Yabello District and Borena Zone governmental offices. Semi structured interviews, structured questioners; focus group discussion and document analysis were used for data collection. 75.6% of the informants reported that genetic resources are illicitly transferred from Ethiopia to Kenya followed by both Kenya and Somalia (14.3%) informants and 68% of the informants reported that genetic resources are illegally imported from Kenya followed by both Kenya and Somalia reported by (12.3%) of the informants. Merchants were the responsible actors involved (41.6%) in the illegal access to genetic resources followed by transboundary travelers (8.4%). 26.9% of the respondents reported that plants, animals and their derivatives have been illegally transferred to neighboring countries and (16.8%) of them said that animals have been illegally transferred to neighboring countries. 43.7% of the informants stated that the overall multiple impact and trend of illegal access to genetic resources in the future would become high and increased sharply respectively and 42.9% of them said that the current status and trend of illegal access to genetic resources would be intermediate and constant trend respectively. The result revealed that considerable amount of genetic resources around Borena Zone has been subjected to piracy, which will have a probability of intermediate continual impact in the countries biodiversity in the future if appropriate measures are not taken. Therefore, border checkpoints should be strengthens in human capacity and facilities to monitor whether Prior Informed Consent (PIC), Mutual Agreed Term (MAT), Multilateral System and other legal requirements of a particular permit are fulfilled and to undertake technical control. Besides, authoritative and concerned governmental Institution of the three countries (Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia) should work cooperatively to curve out the ecological and economical effects of illegal access to genetic resources by developing and implementing further proper controlling intervention techniques.
Keywords
Illegal Access, Involved Actors, Genetic Resources, Prior Informed Consent and Permit
To cite this article
Edeget Merawi, Ashenafi Ayenew, Fikremariam Ghion, Surveying Illegal Access to Genetic Resources: A Case Study in Borena Zone, Southern, Ethiopia, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2016, pp. 162-170. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20160104.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Abiyot Lelisa Deke, Wondimu Tolcha Adugna, Amsalu Tilahun Fite. Soil Physic-Chemical Properties in Termite Mounds and Adjacent Control Soil in Miyo and Yabello Districts of Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 69-74. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20160404.11.
[2]
Akurugoda. K (2013). Bio-piracy and its impact on biodiversity: A critical analysis with special reference to Sri Lanka. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law 2 (3): 48–52.
[3]
CBD (1992). Convention on Biological Diversity. Secretariat of the convention on biological diversity: United Nations Environment Program. Montreal. Canada.
[4]
NBSAP (2015). National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of Ethiopia. Ethiopia Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[5]
Edeget Merawi (2013). Floristic composition and population structure study of Temcha Riverine Forest, North West, Ethiopia. Msc. Thesis, Bahir Dar University College of Natural and Computational Science Department of Biology; Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
[6]
Federal Negarete Gazeta (2013). Access to Genetic Resources and Community Rights Proclamation No. 482/2006. Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprise, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[7]
Federal Negarete Gazeta (2013). Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute establishment. Council of Ministers Regulation No. 291/2013. Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprise, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[8]
Federal Negarete Gazeta (2013). Access to Genetic Resources and Community and community knowledge and community Rights council of ministers. Regulation No. 169/2009. Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprise, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[9]
Gemedo Dalle (2012). Implementation Challenges of the Access and Benefit Sharing Agreement on Teff (Eragrostis tef). Biodiversity Newsletter: Institute of Biodiversity Conservation: Public Relation and Communication: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[10]
Leonardo. G and Diana. B (2013). Bioprospecting in Colombia. Universitas Scientiarum 18 (2): 153-164 doi: 10.11144/ Javeriana. SC 18-2. Bc.
[11]
Moyale monthly climatic average (2016); http:// www. World weather online. Com /moyale -weather-averages/et.aspx; Accessed on Tuesday, August 3, 2016.
[12]
Nagoya Protocol (2011). Nagoya Protocol on access to genetic resource and the fair and equitable benefits arising from their utilization on the convention on biological diversity. Nagoya, Japan.
[13]
Sampath. M (2005). Economic Aspects of Access to Medicines after 2005: Product Patent Protection and Emerging Firm Strategies in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry; United Nations University-Institute for New Technologies (UNU-INTECH).
[14]
Temperature and precipitation of Yabello, Ethiopia (2016). WWW. Climate data. Eu.com. Accessed on Tuesday, 3, 2016.
[15]
UWD (2015). Unpublished working Document. Yabello Zone Administration, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.
Browse journals by subject