Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2018, Page: 9-18
Water Demand Simulation Using WEAP 21: A Case Study of the Mara River Basin, Kenya
Osoro George Marcellus Metobwa, Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (Including Climate Change), University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria
Khaldoon Abdalah Mourad, Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (Including Climate Change), University of Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria; Social Science Faculty, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Lars Ribbe, The Institute for Technology & Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, Germany
Received: Oct. 2, 2017;       Accepted: Dec. 26, 2017;       Published: Jan. 16, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20180301.12      View  2122      Downloads  241
The competing water uses within the Mara River Basin MRB has increased water demand, which has affected the Mara river. In this paper, water resources and demands were modelled using Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP), by which different methods and strategies were assessed to mitigate the overuse practices from the Mara river. For this, water uses and resources in the basin were quantified and mapped in regard to their current and future statuses taking 2010 as a reference year for the simulation’ scenarios up to 2045. The Parameter Estimation Tool (PEST) was used to calibrate the model. The results showed that the total water demand within the basin under the reference scenario was 4.91 BCM, the demand dropped to 4.1 BCM under the ¨Demand Management Strategy DMS scenario and to 3.5 BCM under the Enhanced Policy Implementation and DMS scenario. The results also showed that the proposed DMS could increase water sustainability by reducing water demands at the basin.
Demand Management, Mitigation, PEST, Sustainability, Policy Implementation
To cite this article
Osoro George Marcellus Metobwa, Khaldoon Abdalah Mourad, Lars Ribbe, Water Demand Simulation Using WEAP 21: A Case Study of the Mara River Basin, Kenya, International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 9-18. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnrem.20180301.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WRMA. Guidelines for Water Allocation. Kenya Water Resources Management Authority, 2009.
Gereta, E.; Wolanski, E.;, Borner, M.; Serneels, S. Use of an ecohydrology model to predict the impact on the Serengeti ecosystem of deforestation, irrigation and the proposed Amala Weir Water Diversion Project in Kenya. Ecohydrology and Hydrology, 2002, 2, 135-142.
Ottichilo, W. K., Leeuw, J.; Skidmore, A.; H. T, P.; Said, M. Population Trends of Large Non-Migratory Wild Herbivores and Livestock in the Masai Mara Ecosystem, Kenya, between 1977 and 1997. African Journal of Ecology, 2000, 38, 202-216.
Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M. Modelling the rainfall–runoff process of the Mara River basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool. Hydrological Processes, 2012, 26, 4038-4049.
Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A.; Bhat, M. Assessment of Water Resources Availability and Demand in the Mara River Basin, Kenya/Tanzania. Water Resources Management, 2014, 115, 104-114.
Majule, A. E. Towards sustainable management of natural resources in the Mara river basin in Northeast Tanzania. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 2010, 2 (10), 213-224.
Hoffman, C. M. Geospatial Mapping and Analysis of Water Availability-Demand-Use within the Mara River Basin,. Master of Science in Environmental Studies Thesis. Florida International University, Miami, Florida, 2007.
Gereta, E.; Wolanski, E.; Makus, B.; Serneels. Use of hydrological model to predict the impacts on Serengeti ecosystems of deforestation, irrigation and the proposed Amala weir in Kenya, 2001, Retrieved from http//www.2gf.de/mitarbeiterbereich/pdf/AmalaStudy.pdf.
Mati, B. M.; Mutie, S.; Home, P.; Gadain, H.; Home, P.; Mtalo, F. Impacts of land-use/cover changes on the hydrology of the transboundary Mara River Kenya/Tanzania. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, 2008, 13: 169-177.
Onjira P. Application of Remote sensing and Rainfall-Run-off Inundation Modeling to Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring in Kenya, 2014. Thesis for: Disaster Mangement, Advisor: Dr. Takahiro Sayama, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1283.3046
Van Loon, A.; Droogers, P. Water Evaluation and Planning System Kitui – Kenya, 2006.
Sieber, J. M Purkey, D. Water Evaluation And Planning System (Weap ), User Guide. Stockholm Environment Institute, U. S. Center 11 Curtis Avenue 2011.
Yates, D.; Sieber, J.; Purkey, D. WEAP21 – A Demand-, Priority-, and Preference-Driven Water Planning Model. International Water Resources Association. International Water Resources Association Water International, 2005, 5 (4), 487–500.
Akivanga, E. M.; Otieno, F., Kipkorir, E.; Kibiiy, S. Impact of introducing reserve flows on abstractive uses in a water stressed catchment in Kenya: Application of WEAP 21 Model. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 2010, 5 (16), 2441-2449.
Jenkins, M., Marques, G. F., Lelo, F. K., & Miller, S. N. (May 15-19, 2005). WEAP as a Participatory Tool for Shared Vision Planning in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. Anchorage, Alaska: ASCE.
Mourad, K. M.; Alshihabi, O. Assessment of future Syrian water resources supply and demand by WEAP model. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2016, 61 (2), 393-401 DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2014.999779.
Sebhat, M. Y. Assessment of water demands for Juba and Shebelle rivers. Intergrated journal of British, 2 (2 MAR - APR), 16-29. Retrieved June 26/06/2016, 2016, from www.ijbritish.com.
URT-NSCA-Mara. National Sample Census of Agriculture 2007/2008, Regional Report. Mara Region, Zanzibar, 2012, p. 187.
King, J. Livestock water needs in pastoral Africa in relation to climate and forage. Nairobi: International Livestock Research Institute, 1983.
Mduma, S. A.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hilborn, R. Food regulates the Serengeti wildebeest: a 40-year record. Journal of Animal. Ecology, 1999, 68: 1101–1122.
The East African Community. Mara river basin-wide water allocation plan. The East African Community. The East African Community, 2013, Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/706.
Du Toit, J. T. Wildlife harvesting guidelines for community based wildlife management: A Southern African perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2002, 11, 1403-1416.
UNEP. Mau Complex and Marmanet forests: Environmental and economic contributions Current state and trends. UNEP, NAIROBI, KENYA: United Nations Environmental Programme, 2008.
Peden, D.; Alemayehu, M.; Amede, T. Nile basin livestock water productivity. CPWF Project Report Series, PN37. Colombo: CPWF, 2009.
Browse journals by subject